M&As are used to consolidate and grow companies through various financial transactions.

Merger and Acquisition Types 

An acquisition is accomplished when one company buys another. It becomes the prevailing owner. A merger is accomplished when two firms of about the same size are determined to combine themselves instead of operating separately.  

Acquisitions Can Occur in Several Ways: 

• One company purchases a majority stake in another firm. Both entities continue under their existing names and operating structures.  

• Two companies combine their businesses and operate under a single identity.  

• One company purchases another businesses’ assets, typically occurring during a bankruptcy proceeding.  

• A management-led buyout (MBO) occurs when a company’s executives purchase control of another company and take it private.   

Mergers Can Occur in These Ways: 

• Horizontal mergers combine direct competitors.  

• Vertical mergers combine a customer with its supplier.  

• Congeneric mergers combine two related businesses that serve the same customers.  

• Market-extension mergers blend companies selling the same products but in different markets.  

• Product-extension mergers combine different but related products in the same market.  

• Conglomeration mergers combine two unrelated businesses.   

Merger and Acquisition Financing 

Merger and acquisition financing refers to the process of funding mergers and acquisitions. M&A financing can come from equity financing through one company selling its stock to fund the deal or a stock swap between companies. It can also come from debt financing that is acquired from lenders.  

Equity financing does not have to be repaid and is good if a company’s valuation is high. It can, however, lead to a loss of control and is more expensive than debt. 

Debt financing is cheaper than equity financing and does not lead to a loss of control. However, there is a limit on the amount that can be borrowed. 

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Contact Sterling Capital Consulting for a wide range of tailored financing solutions to help you achieve your investing and business dreams, from commercial real estate to small business loans.